According to Australia’s Northern Territory Department of Health, a record 54 cases of melioidosis have been reported in the northern part of the Northern Territory since October 2011. Melioidosis is caused by the soil-dwelling bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. pseudomallei enter the body via breaks in the skin or via inhalation of dust or droplets. Travelers should avoid direct contact with soil in wet or muddy areas. Infection in travelers is rare.